Citizenship and Migration

ENG 105. Fall 2020. University of Miami

Readings (Requires UMiami authentication)


Course: English 105 (Fall 2020) at the University of Miami
Course Title: English Composition I
Class Location: Lakeside Village 1084
Class time: M/W/F at 11:15-12:05pm (Section D3)
Instructor: Preston Taylor Stone (
Office hours: Zoom/by appt only

Migrant Detention Center, Homestead, FL, US

Course Description:
English 105 is intended to serve as an introduction to the kind of writing, reading, and thinking that take place at a university. We will read challenging essays that will help to formulate our own writing. Peer review, collaboration with classmates, active participation in classroom discussions, and revision are some of the methods that you will employ in order to develop your own writing. The primary goal of this course is to polish your writing skills and help you become a more expedient, more thorough, and more sophisticated writer. Students will work with multiple sources, engage in inquiry-based projects, and present their findings in non-written formats (e.g., oral, visual, multimodal) where appropriate. 

Citizenship and Migration: This course will center around arguments of citizenship, migration, and incarceration. We will read different accounts of experience, theory, and law surrounding these themes in order first to have a better and more holistic understanding of the issues of our present day and second to deconstruct the arguments and evidence each of the readings put forward so that we can understand how to make compelling arguments of our own. The contemporary world has seen more changes in status of citizenship, nationality, legal personhood, and migration than ever before. It is, therefore, important that we discuss how these changes impact our lives and the lives of others with whom we share this world.

Required Texts and Materials:

  • Most of the required reading texts will be provided on Google Drive and linked on the schedule page on the course site. You will be expected to print and bring these to class or have full access to them during class. Those which are not available in digital form are listed below with their respective ISBN numbers. You are expected to purchase these.
  • Laptop, tablet, or smart device to write and submit in-class assignments
  • Access to Netflix streaming services
  • Portable storage (flashdrive, email, cloud, etc)

Regarding the Pain of Others by Susan Sontag
ISBN: 0-312-42219-9
Amazon // Barnes & Noble // IndieBound // AbeBooks

The Drowned and the Saved: essays by Primo Levi
ISBN: 978-1-5011-6763-8
Amazon // Barnes & Noble // IndieBound // AbeBooks

As a result of English 105, students will demonstrate how to: 

  • Discuss writing metacognitively
  • Engage in critical forms of inquiry about culture, writing, and structures of power
  • Use texts as invitations and opportunities for writing and thinking
  • Deploy more sophisticated rhetorical strategies in writing 
  • Achieve the smooth flow of ideas through appropriate use of transitional words, phrases, sentences, and paragraphs 
  • Express ideas clearly and concisely 
  • Edit and proofread writing in order to correct mechanical errors
  • Maintain the focus of an argument 
  • Reflect on their own writing and the writing of others (peers and professionals) 
  • Describe the choices made in composing texts and why those were or were not appropriate or effective
  • Cite sources informally

Policies & Assignments

Students are required to attend class, come to class on time and prepared (having done the reading/s or assignment/s), at least attempt all classwork activities, turn in assigned work when due, participate fully in good faith in any peer work, participate in class discussion, focus on the work at hand, and conduct oneself in a manner appropriate to the college classroom.

Rubric for class participation

5Student is always attentive and contributes relevant insight very often, completing all in-class assignments in a collaborative and receptive manner
4Student is attentive and completes all in-class assignments in a collaborative and receptive manner
3Student is distracted but completes all in-class assignments
2Student is often distracted and off-task, hesitant and unreceptive to collaboration
1Student does not complete in-class assignments
0Student is absent

Face coverings are mandatory at all times (with the exception of when drinking water) while in on-campus class sessions. Failure to follow this requirement is grounds for disciplinary action and may lead to removal from the classroom and/or the course.

The seat you select on the first day of class must be from among those identified as meeting the physical distance requirements for COVID-19; this seat will be your assigned seat for the remainder of the semester. This will enable the most effective COVID-19 contact tracing, should it be required.

Students are required to use the Daily Symptom Checker and be cleared to attend class each day. Students may be asked to show the green “Good to Go” notice. You may be required to produce your notice at any time while on campus. Students who fail to comply or to produce their “Good to Go” notice will be asked to leave the classroom.

Each student is allotted 5 unexcused absences (one and a half weeks) and 3 tardies. Absences beyond this may result in deductions from the student’s final grade. Excessive absences will result in the student failing the course. After a student has been late (tardy) 3 times, each following time the student is late will result in 1/3 an absence. This means once a student has been late to class 6 times, they will receive an absence. Students who are consistently distracted in class (texting, browsing the internet, etc.) will be warned to pay closer attention to class. After this warning, if a student is continuously distracted in class, they will be marked absent. Students who acknowledge holy days on the same day(s) we have class will be excused if they have alerted the professor of all of these by the end of three days after you are enrolled in class. Absences do not excuse any due dates or work missed.

Unless you are approved to take this course under the Remote Learning Option, physical attendance in the classroom is required as scheduled. You are expected to participate with your video enabled during your non-classroom days. If at some point in the semester you cannot physically attend class sessions due to illness, injury, or other approved absence, you must contact the instructor for permission to temporarily attend the course online. Unexcused absences from the classroom may affect your grade or lead to failing the course.

On Writing and Reading
This class will ask a lot of you in terms of writing and reading. You are likely to do more reading in a quicker time in this course than any other course you have taken before. I will, before class, ask that you respond to several informal prompts on Blackboard in the hopes you will at least attempt to do this work. Homework is a small part of your participation grade but will be immensely helpful to you in thinking about the texts we are discussing and formulating a topic for your final paper. I understand this is not your only class and I respect that you have a personal life beyond our classroom. Nonetheless, I expect you will come to class having at least attempted to do the assigned reading and writing all the way through and having prepared notes, ideas, or questions to discuss with the class.

Revision is a central and integral part of this course and any writing course of merit. In order for your writing to be consistently improving, you must bring it through multiple drafts of revision. Revision, then, is a requirement of this course. You will upload free-write, journaling, even outlines and sketches, to your Google Drive folder. Failure to do so will cast a burden of proof on your having done consistent revision in good faith for each assignment, and this will be reflected in your grades.

Electronics Policy and Google Drive vs. Blackboard
Each student is required to bring a tablet, laptop, or similar electronic device to class in order to take notes, complete and submit in-class writing assignments, access readings or notes for class discussion, and participate in peer review. No electronic device should be a distraction from the activities of the classroom for any student. The use of laptops or tablets is allowed only to complete classroom-related activities. If electronic devices become a distraction or a means by which students avoid class participation, the student(s) in violation will receive an absence for class that day.

We will spend most of our class time working in Google Drive, a cloud-based file sharing system to which each student at the University of Miami has access. To log-in to your Google Drive, visit and use the same credentials you use to access your email, Canelink, and Blackboard interfaces. You will have your own folder within the classroom’s folder (“ENG 105 D3 – Fall 2020”). Drive is where you will submit your drafts, revisions, in-class writing assignments, reflections, and peer reviews. It is up to you to make sure you have access to your Blackboard and Google Drive accounts and folders at all times. Inability to access Google Drive or Blackboard will not be sufficient excuse for not turning in assignments on time. For IT help, UMIT is located on the third floor of the Richter Library or may be accessed at

Students are expressly prohibited from recording any part of this course. Meetings of this course might be recorded by the University. Any recordings will be available to students registered for this class as they are intended to supplement the classroom experience. Students are expected to follow appropriate University policies and maintain the security of passwords used to access recorded lectures. Recordings may not be reproduced, shared with those not in the class, or uploaded to other online environments. If the instructor or a University of Miami office plans any other uses for the recordings, beyond this class, students identifiable in the recordings will be notified to request consent prior to such use. This instructor is the copyright owner of the courseware; individual recordings of the materials on Blackboard and/or of the virtual sessions are not allowed. Such materials cannot be shared outside the physical or virtual classroom environment without express permission.

 Academic Honor Code
As a student of the University of Miami, you have agreed to uphold the Honor Code. Violation of this code includes but is not limited to cheating, plagiarism, collusion, or academic dishonesty. The Undergraduate Student Rights and Responsibilities Handbook defines each of these violations:

Cheating – Implies the intent to deceive. It includes all actions, devices and deceptions used in the attempt to commit this act. Examples include, but are not limited to, copying answers from another student’s exam, and using a cheat sheet or crib notes in an exam.

Plagiarism – is representing the words or ideas of someone else as your own. Examples include, but are not limited to, failing to properly cite direct quotes and failing to give credit for someone else’s ideas.

Collusion – is the act of working together on an academic undertaking for which a student is individually responsible. Examples include, but are not limited to, sharing information in labs that are to be done individually.

Academic Dishonesty – includes any other act not specifically covered that compromises the integrity of a student or intrudes, violates, or disturbs the academic environment of the university community. Examples are attempting or agreeing to commit, or assisting in or facilitating the commission of, any scholastic dishonesty violation, failing to appear or testify without good cause when requested by the Honor Council, failing to keep information about cases confidential, supplying false information to the Honor Council and accusing a student of a violation of this Code in bad faith.

Title II, B

Any student who violates the Honor Code will fail not only the assignment but the entire course. Each of you has the ability to think through your own unique ideas. If you are thinking of violating the Honor Code because you are overwhelmed or in distress, speak with me and we will come up with a better solution.

On Accessibility and Acceptance
Every student, no matter their identity, ideology, or ability, is welcome and valued in this class. This class will require that we confront political, social, and ideological questions that may be deemed controversial. I encourage you not to shy away from this opportunity to think through these issues. No matter what, no student should ever feel unwelcome or unsafe in this classroom. If you find that you feel inappropriately uncomfortable, consistently unsafe, or need help, please let me know immediately and I will direct you to the resources that may help. The University of Miami Counseling Center (UMCC) provides professional support to students no matter their gender expression, sexual preferences, sex, race, financial or immigration status. You can make an appointment by calling 305-284-5511, by visiting, or by visiting the counseling center on Merrick Dr. (across from the Pavia Garage).

Students with accessibility requirements are provided for by the University of Miami’s Office of Disability Services (ODS) and may contact this office at 305-284-2374 or to make any requests for accessibility. If you have trouble contacting the ODS, let me know and I will help you. If you have contacted the ODS and have any requirements of me, please be sure to let me know as soon as possible.

Turning in assignments 
Papers should be submitted on Blackboard or Google Drive on the day and at the specified time they are due. Each day a paper is late, there will be a deduction of 10% from the grade. All assignments are assigned in due time to be completed by each student on time. It is your own job to make sure you do not forget deadlines and that you turn your assignments into the correct platform (Blackboard, email, or Google Drive). Every deadline is listed on this document in the schedule section, on the assignment sheets themselves, and verbally said in class. If you require an extension(s) for your assignment(s), you must request them of the instructor at least three class periods (over a week) prior to the due date of the assignment. Under no circumstances is the instructor required to grant you an extension(s). No late blackboard posts will be accepted.

The Writing Center ( can help you at any stage of the writing process.  Appointments are suggested, but they also accept ‘walk-in’ visits.  If I think it’s necessary, I will ask you to use the Writing Center on a regular basis. Please note that all appointments are currently being held online until further notice.  To make an online appointment, make an account at the above link/sign in as usual and choose an available time.

OWL @ Purdue is a great online resource for writing and research techniques. It can be located at

Extra Credit is not available or permitted in this course. I do not allow extra credit for several reasons: put simply, it is unfair to those who have committed to the work required of this class if others are able to do extra work for credit. Moreover, extra credit requires extra effort and time to which I am unable to commit for reading, annotating, grading, and categorizing within the gradebook.

On Communication
I will make a point to learn each of your names and I expect you will learn to use one another’s name in conversation, as well (“I agree with what ___ said”). This will create a welcoming and meaningful culture for our classroom. If you have a question about the policies or assignments for this class, you may speak to me before, during, or after class, via email, or in office hours. I will make a point to reply to your email within 24-to-48 hours. If you have not received a response from me after two days, you should email me again. Please do not email me to ask questions about an assignment one or two days before it is due as this will not allow due time for me to respond and for you to use this answer in writing your assignment.

Each student will write three essays. These will be inquiry-based exercises modeled after the respective readings we will discuss during class time throughout the semester. Emphasis will be placed on being able to make and hold a worthwhile argument while exhibiting discipline in your use of language and evidence in support of your argument. Each essay must be 1000-1500 words in length, in Times New Roman 12-point font, and double-spaced with your name and page numbers on each page. All three essays must be uploaded to Google Drive by the specified time and date. Each day an assignment is late, the student risks losing ten points from their final possible grade.

One-page essays
Each student will be asked to write in-class assignments at random points in the semester. These will most likely be one-page in length and submitted to Google Drive upon completion. These short assignments are an opportunity to put down thoughts and reactions as well as ideas about the readings and in-class discussions. Similar to Blackboard posts, these will be a good exercise in writing off-the-cuff based on very initial reactions. The purpose of these exercises will be to prepare writing before drafts are due for each paper. Additionally, these exercises will function as good practice for students who may have trouble sitting down and putting thoughts to paper. The instructor will provide feedback for these assignments, making them a crucial part of the process toward essay completion and graded work for the course.

Blackboard reading responses
The night before most reading assignments are due, you will be asked to respond to a specific prompt or question related to the reading. These responses are designed to stimulate your thinking about the text and the course themes and help prepare you for class discussion. They are also great places to start generating ideas for your essays and research projects. These posts will be graded based on completion, but thoughtful responses will enrich our class discussions and help you develop confidence in your ideas, critical reading skills, and writing. All posts are due before class time. To earn full points on your reading responses, you will need to write thoughtful answers in full sentences and/or paragraphs and submit your post before class time. *200-300 words each*

If you have a question or concern about an assignment or participation grade, please come and see me during my office hours or talk with me before or after class to arrange a meeting.  Due to federal requirements, UM faculty are not permitted to discuss grades via email or phone, so we will need to meet in person and in private.

Overall Grade Distribution:

Class Participation100pts
Blackboard Posts250pts
3 Peer Reviews150pts
3 Essays300pts

Grading Scale:

A – Exemplary B – Effective C – Sufficient   D – Unsatisfactory F – Failure

Rubric for class participation

5Student is always attentive and contributes relevant insight very often, completing all in-class assignments in a collaborative and receptive manner
4Student is attentive and completes all in-class assignments in a collaborative and receptive manner
3Student is distracted but completes all in-class assignments
2Student is often distracted and off-task, hesitant and unreceptive to collaboration
1Student does not complete in-class assignments
0Student is absent

Rubric for written assignments

AStudent’s argument is clear, concise, and thought-through.Student’s essay has little to no grammatical errorsStudent’s essay is carefully crafted to suit its reader and contains a strong personal voiceStudent’s writing itself is effective because it offers fierce insight, vivid details, strong analysis, and solid evidence Evidence is selected and presented carefully for relevance and effectivenessStudent’s essay demonstrates the writer’s ability to actively read and respond to difficult textsStudent’s essay is turned in on time.
BStudent’s argument is fairly clear and concise but lingers about at times.Student’s essay has a few grammatical errorsStudent’s essay needs further development in areas such as organization, textual support, or analysisStudent’s essay needs further revision to adjust sentence structure and/or provide smoother transitions between sentences and paragraphsStudent’s essay showcases clear and strong writing but the writer may still be unsure of her voice, audience, or styleWriting demonstrates strong awareness of assignment goals and purpose but may not incorporate relevant evidence effectivelyStudent’s essay is turned in on time.
CStudent’s argument is unclear but the essay meets the word requirementStudent’s essay has more than a few grammatical errors but is still readableStudent’s essay contains all the requirements of the assignment in adequate form, but shows vague or confused awareness of assignment goals and purposeStudent’s essay does not include relevant evidence or does not connect this evidence effectively to argumentStudent’s assignment is turned in late
DStudent’s argument is unclear and awkwardly phrasedStudent’s essay under the word requirement Student’s grammar is nearly unreadableStudent’s writing shows a carelessness in structure and mechanics which detract from the overall quality of the workWriting reflects serious problems with development of ideas, organization, and minimal effort toward revisionStudent’s essay offers no evidence from the text to support claims
FStudent did not turn in assignment

ENG 105 Fall 2019 Course Schedule

(subject to change—any changes will be announced with due notice.  Homework is due for the next class session)

Week 1In ClassHomework
M    8/19-Review syllabus-Read and discuss “Academia, Love Me Back” by Tiffany Martínez-In-class assignment: “What is an argument/thesis statement?” -Read “The Parent Who Stays” by Reyna Grande-Write a post on Blackboard introducing yourself.
W-Discuss “The Parent Who Stays” by Reyna Grande-Discuss Essay 1 Assignment-Read “Beside Oneself: On the Limits of Sexual Autonomy” by Judith Butler-Post on Blackboard an answer to the question “How does culture define our identity?”
Week 2In ClassHomework
M    8/26-In-class exercise on “Beside Oneself: On the Limits of Sexual Autonomy” by Judith Butler-Discuss Butler’s argument and evidence-Read first half of “Survival Migration: A New Protection Framework” by Alexander Betts.-Post on Blackboard what survival migration is, according to Betts.
WDiscuss “Survival Migration: A New Protection Framework” by Alexander Betts-Read the rest of “Survival Migration: A New Protection Framework” by Alexander Betts.
Week 3In ClassHomework
M      9/2
Labor Day HolidayLabor Day Holiday(don’t forget to read the remainder of Betts article)
W-Discuss “Survival Migration: A New Protection Framework”-Watch Deportation Nation from The Atlantic on YouTube and discuss argument/evidence from each side
Last Day to Drop Course Without a “W”
-Read Independent article “Donald Trump’s new immigration rule would have kept his German grandfather out” (BB)-Read Wikipedia list of US immigration laws: List_of_United_States_immigration_ laws-Post on BB what you think the argument and evidence are in the Independent article
Week 4In ClassHomework
M      9/9-Discuss Independent article, Immigration Laws-Watch Ch 1 of The Chinese Exclusion Act from American Experience (PBS)-Post draft thesis statement for Essay 1 on Blackboard AND respond to The Chinese Exclusion Act that we watched in class. (150 word min)-Read “Useless Violence” by Primo Levi
W-Discuss “Useless Violence” by Primo Levi-Introductory paragraphs-Post feedback for at least 3 of your peers’ theses (50-100 words each) before Friday at midnight.-Post a draft of your introductory paragraph for Essay 1 on Blackboard before noon Monday.
Week 5In ClassHomework
M    9/16-Go over MLA formatting-“What is Peer Review?” in-class assignment-Peer Review introductory paragraphs-Write a draft of Essay 1 (bring 2 printed copies of draft to class)
W-Peer review Essay 1 in class-Go over peer review letter format-Write peer review letter, email to partner (cc professor) before Friday at midnight-Essay due Monday
Week 6In ClassHomework
M    9/23Essay 1 Due; Post-mortem-Review Essay 2 Assignment-Watch “Economics of Immigration” from CrashCourse in class and discuss-Read “Foucauldian Resonances: Agamben on Race, Citizenship, and the Modern State” by Elvira Basevich-Post a discussion question for the class on Blackboard.
W-Discuss Basevich’s argument-Read “From Zoēpolitics to Biopolitics: Citizenship and the Construction of ‘Society’” by Willem Schinkel-Post on Blackboard an answer the question “What is the difference between zoēpolitics and biopolitics? Give an example of each/both.”
Week 7In ClassHomework
M    9/30-Discuss Schinkel’s argument-Read “Coloniality and Modernity/Rationality” by Aníbal Quijano-Post on Blackboard the definition of “intersubjective construction” and give an example.
W-Discuss Aníbal-Read “What is a nation?” by Ernst Renan-Post on Blackboard Renan’s answer to the title question “What is a nation?”
Week 8
M    10/7-Discuss Renan-Read “The Decline of the Nation-State and the End of the Rights of Man” by Hannah Arendt-Post a discussion question based on the Arendt reading
W-Discuss Arendt-Read “The Creation of a Geoculture: Ideologies, Social Movements, Social Science” by Immanuel Wallerstein-Post an answer to the discussion question based on the Wallerstein reading that is on Blackboard (150 word min)

Week 9In ClassHomework
M  10/14-Discuss Wallerstein-Read “Stereotypes” by Primo Levi-Post draft thesis for Essay 2 on Blackboard
W-Discuss Levi-Read “Conclusion” of Primo Levi book-Post feedback for at least 3 of your peers’ theses (50-100 words each) on Blackboard before Friday at midnight.-Post a draft of your introductory paragraph for Essay 2 on Blackboard before Monday at noon.
Week 10In ClassHomework
M  10/21-Discuss LeviLast Day to Drop a Course (Receive “W” on transcript)Write a draft of Essay 2 (bring 2 printed copies of draft to class)
W-Peer review Essay 2 in class-Go over peer review letter format-Write peer review letter, email to partner (cc professor) before Friday at midnight-Essay 2 due Monday
Week 11In ClassHomework
M  10/28Essay 2 due; Post-mortem-Go over assignment for Essay 3-Watch videos of European migrant camps-Read Ch 1-2 of Regarding the Pain of Others by Susan Sontag-Post an answer to the following question on blackboard: Why does Sontag disagree with Woolf’s “general” abhorrence of war? (150 word min)
WDiscuss Sontag
-Read Ch 3-4 of Regarding the Pain of Others by Susan Sontag-Post an answer to the following question on Blackboard: What are the reasons for censorship/suppression of photography according to Sontag? (150 word min)
Week 12In ClassHomework
M    11/4Discuss Sontag-Read Ch 5-6 of Regarding the Pain of Others by Susan Sontag-Post and answer to the following question on Blackboard: How does collective instruction work? (150 word min)
WDiscuss Sontag-Read Ch 7-9 of Regarding the Pain of Others by Susan Sontag-Post an answer to the following question(s) on Blackboard: Is there a seductiveness to images of suffering? Is it moral to look at photos that depict suffering? (150 word min)
Week 13In ClassHomework
M  11/11Discuss Sontag-Read “Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving?: Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others” by Lila Abu-Lughod-Post on Blackboard what you think Abu-Lughod’s argument is.
WDiscuss Abu-Lughod -Read “My Muslim American Life” by Moustafa Bayoumi-Post an answer to the following question on Blackboard: According to Bayoumi, why is it important that all Americans understand the treatment of Muslim Americans? (150 word min)
Week 14In ClassHomework
M  11/18Discuss Bayoumi-Read “Introduction” of Inter/Nationalism: Decolonizing Native America and Palestine by Steven Salaita-Post on Blackboard an answer to the questions “What is inter/nationalism? Why is it important, according to Salaita?”
W-Discuss Salaita-Post draft thesis for Essay 3 on Blackboard-Watch Life and Debt film (available on Amazon for $4)

Week 15In ClassHomework
M  11/25-Discuss Life and Debt-Post feedback for at least 3 of your peers’ theses (50-100 words each) on Blackboard.-Post a draft of your introductory paragraph for Essay 3 on Blackboard.
W-Peer Review Introductory paragraphs for Essay 3– Write a draft of Essay 3 (bring 2 printed copies of draft to class)
Week 16In ClassHomework
M    12/2-Peer review Essay 3 in class**Essay 3 must be submitted on Blackboard by Monday, December 9 at 11:59pm EST**

Essay 1 – Identity

(1000-1500 words double-spaced)

Prompt: How is one’s identity defined? 

As a framework, consider the following scaffolding. These are by no means a laundry list of things you ought to include; they are just places that may help you begin.

Examine your identity or the identity of others. What most defines our identification? We have encountered readings that have rendered identity in economic means (Betts), migratory means (Betts, Grande, Deportation Nation), criminal and legal means (Grande, Deportation Nation), and socio-personal means (Butler, Grande). What, then, is most essential about one’s identity? In what situations are we required to identify and how do we do so? Is our identity meant to capture the fullness of our selfhood or does it depend on context? Write an analysis paper including evidential information that begins with a thesis statement arguing how identity is defined. In considering this, you might discuss the readings and viewings from the first part of our course; although, you are not required to do so.

Essay 2 – Citizenship

(1000-1500 words double-spaced)

Prompt: How does citizenship define us?

As a framework, consider the following scaffolding. These are by no means a laundry list of things you ought to include; they are just places that may help you begin.

Think back to the first essay and our discussions of identity, politics, and citizenship. How has citizenship arisen to define our experience today? Does one’s citizenship dictate the experience one has in any given situation? Does citizenship capture the fullness of our selfhood or does it offer something else meaningful? Consider how the readings of the course so far have thought through issues of citizenship, nationality, and race. How do these inter-relate? Write an analysis paper including evidential information that begins with a thesis statement arguing how citizenship defines us. In considering this, you might discuss the readings and viewings from the course so far; although, you are not required to do so.

Essay 3 – Observation Assignment

(1000-1500 words double-spaced)

Prompt: How is identity and/or citizenship shown in portrait art? 

As a framework, consider the following scaffolding. These are by no means a laundry list of things you ought to include; they are just places that may help you begin.

A portrait is defined by the OED as “A drawing or painting of (a) person(s), often mounted and framed for display, esp. one of the face or head and shoulders; (also) an engraving, photograph, etc., in a similar style.” Consider the portraits available in the Portraits folder in the class Blackboard platform. Choose one and write an analysis paper including evidential information that begins with a thesis statement arguing how identity and citizenship is shown in the art. You may not use outside sources for this assignment. Instead, use specific elements of the portrait as evidence for your argument. Be sure to include the name of the portrait in your title.

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